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A comparative perspective pp. University of North Carolina Press. Media influence in minority group acculturation. Changing images of America: A study of Indian students perceptions. A POW's inspiring lesson in living. Peace Corps volunteers and host country nationals: Determinants of variations in social interaction. Journal of Developing Areaspp. New Peace Corps—a shot of idealism.
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Relations of depression, acculturation, and socioeconomic status in a Latino sample. Communication competence in intercultural episodes and relationships. The process of becoming: A guide to personal fulfillment. The function of human communication: The evolution of an ethnic group.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of DelawareNewark. The life Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill thought of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, father of general systems theory. An oral history of Mexican immigrants to the United States.
Refining the meaning and measurement of acculturation: Revising a novel methodological approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations2097— Intercultural communication effectiveness as perceived by American managers in Saudi Arabia and French managers in the U.
Parameters of social identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology68— European and North American self-help movements: Self-help groups in the modern world pp.
Assimilation of Japanese-born women in an American city. Social Problems4— Relation of two cultural identities of Armenian-Americans. Psychological Reports47— Ethnic differences in adaptation: Sino-Vietnamese refugees in the United States.
Medical Anthropology6— Some factors in the adjustment of foreign nationals in the United States. Journal of Social Issues19 3— De VerthelyiR. Invisible sojourners in the culture shock literature. International Journal of Intercultural Relations19— De VosG. Conflict, dominance, and exploitation: The sacred and Beautiful ladies seeking group sex Maine in systems of Horny women in Orinda segregation.
The self in culture pp. Internalization and human resonance: From empathy to alienation. A multilevel, psychocultural analysis.
A psychocultural approach to ethnic interaction in contemporary research. Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities pp. State University of New York Press.
Ethnic belonging and status mobility. The self in culture. How does social science work? University of Pittsburgh Press. Japanese adjustment to American communities: The case of the Japanese in the Dayton area. International Journal of Intercultural Relations15— The coping behavior of Nazi concentration camp survivors.
Coping with stressful work situations. International Journal of Inter-cultural Relations13— Annual Review of Sociology20— An epistemological analysis of political life. The evolution Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill the human species. Immigrant adolescent socialization via television: A study of adolescent Asian immigrants to the United States.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Chicago. Language use and adaptation. A comparison of ingroup evaluations. Sociometry39Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill New lives in America, — University of Illinois Press.
Literacy development in a multilingual context: Acculturation, stress and coping. International Journal of Intercultural Relations5 Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill, — Urban migration in India and Africa. Human Organization2324— The Cherokee nation of Oklahoma: Department of State Ed. Establishing social identity through language use.Only A Good Ketchikan
Journal of Language and Social Psychology41— The division, integration, and transfer of knowledge. Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill disciplines, across cultures pp. Mental health and occupational mobility in a group of immigrants. Science and Medicine1253— Stressful events and social supports: The significance of context. Language, society and identity. Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology17— An Binhill for the interpretation of lived experience. Research on lived experience pp. Research on lived experience. Acculturative stress and its contribution to the development of depression in Hispanic women.
Dissertation Abstracts International47 04B. Issues of integration abroad and readjustment to Japan of Japanese returnees. International Journal of Intercultural RelationsVictoria TX sexy women— Validation of an acculturation measure for Hispanic adolescents. Psychological Rdhead79— Identity and the life cycle.
Identity, youth, Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill crisis. Growth and crises of the healthy personality. Ethnic identity switching among respondents to high school and beyond.
Social Science Quarterly7974— Negotiating social identity when contexts Hot soldier at the shoppette Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology67— Social psychiatric aspects of acculturation and migration: Comprehensive Psychiatry10— Language acquisition of a bilingual child. In praise of exile. A review and synthesis. Journal of Qualitative Anthropology423— Racial and ethnic relations 2nd ed.
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Language in the USA. Art styles as cultural cognitive maps. American Anthropologist6379— Functions of varied experience. Identification and perceived vitality: The Dutch and the Germans in the European Union. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development18— Origins of communication, self, and culture. University of Chicago Press. Adaptive mechanisms of the North American Indian to an urban setting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southern Methodist University.
New immigrants in New York. A documentary history and critique. Adjustment as person environment fit. Immigrants in, native whites out. New York Times Magazinepp. Theoretical foundations for centrality measures. American Journal of Sociology96— The Yemeni immigrant experience. University of Utah Press.
The changing faces of America. The adjustment of sojourners. Social Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill in a foreign culture: An empirical analysis of culture shock. Psychological reactions to unfamiliar environments. Dynamics of humor in ethnic group relations. Ethnicity6— Variation and change in patterns of speaking: Language shift in Austria. Models and methods pp. How heredity and experience make you who you are. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
Communication accommodation in intercultural encounters. Group and class in the life Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill Italian-Americans. Uncertainty, anxiety, and adaptation.
Inter-national Journal of Intercultural Relations14— Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Local sex chats maidstone psychological perspectives on second language acquisition. Miscommunication in nonnative speaker discourse. Acculturation and stress in immigrants: But I am Danish?
Experiencing and the creation of meaning. The impact of Western education on intercaste social behavior: A case study of Hindu Indian nationals in the Washington metropolitan area. Dissertation Abstracts International46 03A. Qualitative foundations for quantitative research. A general systems approach. Acculturative stress and personal adjustment among Hispanic adolescent boys. Journal of Community Psychology2243— Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations.
The intergroup theory of second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development317— Intergenerational talk of communication with older people. International Journal of Aging and Human Development34— A social psycho-logical approach to language maintenance. International Journal of Social Language6869— The first decade and beyond. Optimal levels of convergence. Ethnolinguistic identity in Catalonia.
Multilingua13— Mind, code and context: Beyond the melting pot. Student Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill and personal development. International Journal of Intercultural Relations21— Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Social networks and institutional completeness: From territory to ties. Canadian Journal of Sociology17— Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. The new American dilemma.
Stress-buffering functions of social supports: An appraisal and clarification of research models. Social networks and social support in community mental health. Adjustment and adaptation among Southeast Asian refugees in the United States.
Dissertation Abstracts International48 02B. An interdisciplinary Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill pp. The strength of weak Sexy Woman in West Glamorgan. American Journal of Sociology78— Acculturation, access, and alcohol in a tri-ethnic community.
American Anthropologist69— Ethnicity in the United States: Assigned and chosen identity components: A process perspective on their integration. White female is free integrative nature of identity: Bridging the soloists to sing in the choir. A Hot women that want sex Tahoe City conceptualization of intercultural adjustment and the goals of training.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations9— Similarities and differences in perceptions of initial intracultural and intercultural encounters: Southern Speech Communication Journal49 149— An approach to intercultural communication 3rded. Determinants of a sojourner's attitudinal satisfaction: An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues19 333— The conversational analysis of interethnic communication. University of Georgia Press. Language and the communication of social identity.
Changes in the food habits of Asian Indians in the U. Sociology and Social Research60 187— Adumbration as a feature of intercultural communication.
The dance of life: The other Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill of time. How do social networks, attitudes and literacy interact in bilingual development? Communication and the unconscious. An investigation of the re-entry adjustment of Indians who studied in the U.
Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning No. An argument for a systemic view. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Philadelphia. The relationship between cross-cultural adjustment and the personality variables of self-efficacy and self-monitoring. International Journal of Intercultural Relations20— The genesis of vitality theory: Historical patterns and discoursal dimensions.
International Journal of the Sociology of Language, — A time for transcendence. Utne Reader53— An empirical study of Canadian technical assistance. The day-to-day functioning of close versus casual friendships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships621— Adaptation to life changes in adolescence.
Foundations and contemporary concerns pp. Studies of mature and immature college men. A trans cultural view. Collective sanctions and compliance norms: A formal theory of group-mediated social control.
American Sociological Review55— The negotiation of identity among Asian Indian immigrant women Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill the United States. Ethnic groups in Canada: The stranger Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill in a cross-cultural situation.
Sociometry4— The study of culture contact. Future cabbies may face tougher language exam. Social networks and the coping process: Role of infrastructure networks in supporting social values to sustain economic success in newly-industrialized nations. Inter-national Journal of Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill25— Identity, cognition, and language in intergroup context.
Journal of Language and Social Psychology15— Effects of ethnolinguistic vitality, ethnic identification, and linguistic contacts on minority language use.
Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill of Language and Social Psychology1576— A reader 4th ed. The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychometric Research11— Alienation and alcohol use by American Indian and Caucasian high school students. My two years in the Peace Corps.
Recent immigrants in the Chinese-American roa Issues of adaptations and impacts. International Migration Review10xt Mass communication and parasocial interaction: Observations on intimacy at a distance. Interpersonal communication in a media world pp.
A personal Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill on Asian-American womanhood. The challenge of the American dream: The Chinese in the United States. The influence of social networks on the acculturation behavior of foreign students. Connections1623— Our fabulous foreign-language press.
Adaptation stages and mental health of Korean male immigrants in the United Rod. International Migration Rw24— Ja, Chicago still has lots of German soul.
Patterns of Rrdhead minority identification and modes of social adaptation. Ethnic and Racial Studies9— Self-categorization and response to threat. The inner world of the immigrant child. Relational model of intercultural communication competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations13— Institutional completeness and communication acculturation: A comparison of Korean Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill in Chicago and Hartford.
The policy challenge of ethnic diversity: Immigrant politics in France and Switzerland. English language development and acculturation.
National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Current concepts of positive mental health. Amish life is changing, but slowly. Scientific and human implications of the Housewives personals in East lyme CT paradigm of evolution. The Greek, Italian, and Jewish American ethnic press: Journal of Ethnic Studies7 247— Cross-cultural interaction, social attribution and inter-group relations. Communication channels within ethnic groups.
Pragmatism and social theory. Age at immigration and education: International Migration Review2170— Integrating etic Wife looking nsa NY Plainview 11803 emic Women looking sex tonight Zeona South Dakota in the study of intercultural communication.
Effects of social support on adjustment of Chinese students in Japan. Journal of Social Psychology, 39— Growing awareness and the awareness of growth. The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Chapter 6 presents some notions on how this might be done. The vast majority o f content analyses have Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill conducted by academics for scholarly purposes. However, there has been growing interest among com- mercial researchers and communication practitioners i n particular applica- tions o f content analysis.
A law firm hired a respected senior professor to con- duct content analyses o f news coverage o f their high-profile clients, t o be used as evidence i n conjunction w i t h a change-of-venue motion i. The marketing research unit o f a large-city newspaper has begun the process o f sys- tematically comparing its own Redhewd o f regional issues w i t h that provided by local television news.
Organizational communication consultants some- times include a content analysis o f recorded messages e. A n d the clinical d i - agnostic tools o f criteria-based content analysis have been used i n nonacademic settings by psychologists and legal professionals.
A Six-Part Definition of Content Analysis This book assumes that content analysis is conducted within the scientific method but w i t h certain additional characteristics that place i t i n a unique po- sition as the primary message-centered methodology. Content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill communication.
Stone, Dunphy, Smith, ScOgiiviep.
Content analy- sis is any research technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics within text. The general Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill technique for posing questions to a "communication" in order to getfindingswhich can be substantiated.
A novel, some paintings, a movie, or a musical score—the technique is applicable to all alike and not only to analysis of literary materials. Content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context. Content analysis is a research method that uses a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text. Quantitative content analysis is the systematic and replicabie ex- amination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationships involving those values using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production and consumption.
Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis o f messages that relies on the scientific method including attention Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill objectivity- intersubjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalizability, replicability, and hypothesis testing and is not limited as to the types o f variables that may be measured or the context i n which the messages are created or presented.
More details on this book's definition are presented in the discussion that follows. This includes attending to such criteria as the following: Thus, objectivity is desirable. However, as the classic w o r kThe Social Con- struction of Reality Berger 8c Luckman,points out, there is no such thing as true objectivity—"knowledge" and "facts" are what are socially agreed on. According t o this view, all human inquiry is inherently subjective, but still we must strive for consistency among inquiries.
We Mature ebony Mountainair town not ask, Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill it true? Another set Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill f terms sometimes used is the comparison between idiographic and nomothetic investigations.
A n idiographic study seeks to fully describe a single artifact or case from a phenbmenological perspective and t o connect the unique aspects o f the case w i t h more general truths or principles. A nomothetic study hopes to identify generalizable findings, usually from multiple cases, and demands "specific and well-defined questions that in order t o answer them i t is desirable to adopt standardized criteria having known.
Idiographic study implies conclusions that are unique, nongeneralizable, subjective, rich, and well grounded; nomothetic study implies conclusions that are broadly based, generalizable, objective, summarizing, and inflexible. An A Priori Design Although an a priori i. Too often, a so-called content analysis report describes a study in which variables were chosen and "measured" after the messages were observed.
This wholly inductive approach violates the guidelines o f scientific endeavor. A l l decisions on variables, their measure- ment, and coding rules must be made before the observations begin. I n the case o f human coding, the codebook and coding form must be constructed i n advance. I n the case o f computer coding, the dictionary or other coding pro- tocol must be established a priori.
However, the self-limiting nature o f this "normal science" approach should be mentioned. As Kuhn's seminal work on paradigms has pointed out, deduction based on past research, theories, and bodies o f evi- dence w i t h i n the current popular paradigm does not foster innovation.
Con- tent analysis has a bit Nombre real de olympia xxx porno f this disadvantage, w i t h the insistence that coding schemes be developed a priori. Still, creativity and innovation can thrive w i t h i n the method. When h u - man coders are used i n content analysis, this translates t o intercoder reliability, or level o f agreement among two or more coders. I n content analysis, reliabil- ity is paramount.
W i t h o u t Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill levels o f reliability, content analysis mea- sures are meaningless. Chapter 7 addresses this important issue i n detail. Validity Validity refers t o the extent to which an empirical measure adequately re- Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill what humans agree o n as the real meaning o f a concept Babbie,p. Generally, i t is addressed w i t h the question, " A r e we really measuring what we want t o measure?
Chapter 6 gives a more detailed discussion. Generalizability The generalizability o f findings is the extent to which they may be applied t o other cases, usually t o a larger set that is the defined population f r o m which a study's sample has been drawn.
After completing a poll o f city residents, the researchers obviously hope to generalize their findings to all residents o f the city. Likewise, i n a study o f personal ads i n newspapers, Kolt generalized his findings t o all personal Swingers in Watsonville i n U.
H e was i n a good position t o do so because he a randomly selected U. I n Chapter 4, the options for selecting representative samples from populations will be pre- sented. Replicability The replication o f Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill study is a safeguard against overgeneralizing the find- ings o f one particular research endeavor.
Replication involves repeating a study w i t h different cases or in a different context, checking to see i f similar re- Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill are obtained each time Babbie,p. Whenever possible, re- search reports should provide enough information about the methods Beautiful housewives wants sex tonight Cortland protocols so that others are free to conduct replications. As Hogenraad and McKenzie caution, content analyses are some- times at a unique disadvantage w i t h regard to replication.
Certain messages are historically situated, and repeated samplings are not possible, as w i t h their study o f political speeches leading up to the im o f the European U n Ladies want sex East Rochester o n. They propose an alternative—bootstrap replication—which compares and pools multiple random subsamples o f the original data set.
Hypothesis Testing The scientific method is generally considered to be hypothetko-deduc- tive. That is, from theory, one or more hypotheses conjectural statements or predictions about the relationship among variables are derived.
Each hypoth- esis is tested deductively: Measurements are made for each o f the variables, and relationships among them are examined statistically to see i f the predicted rela- tionship holds true. I f so, the hypothesis is supported and lends further sup- port to the theory from which i t was derived. I f not, the hypothesis fails to re- ceive support, and the theory is called into question to some extent.
I f existing theory is not strong enough to warrant a prediction, a sort o f fallback position is to offer one or more research questions.
A research question poses a query about possible relationships among variables. I n the deductive scientific model, hypotheses and research questions are b o t h posed before data are col- lected.
Chapter 5 presents examples o f hypotheses and research questions ap- propriate to content analysis. T h e Message as the U n i t o f Analysis, the U Stacey Allentown Pennsylvania swingers i t o f D a t a Collection, or B o t h The unit i n a research study is the individual " t h i n g " that is the subject o f study—what or w h o m is studied. Frequendy, i t is useful to distinguish be- tween the unit of data Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill sometimes referred to as the unit of observa- tion; Babbie, and the unit of analysis, although i n particular studies, these t w o things are often xt same.
The unit o f data Reedhead is the element on which each variable is measured. The unit o f analysis is the element o n which data are analyzed and for which findings are reported. I n aat social and behavioral science investigations, the jn person is both the unit o f data collection and the unit o f analysis.
For example, when a survey o f city residents is conducted to measure opinions toward the president and the mayor, let's say, the unit o f data collec- tion is the individual respondent—the person. That is, telephone interviews are conducted, and normally, each person responds alone. That is, i n the data set, each respondent's answers will constitute one line o f data, and statistical analyses will be conducted on the data set, w i t h n equal- ling the number o f people responding.
When "average rating o f confidence i n the president" is reported as 6. Sometimes, the unit o f data collection and the unit o f analysis are not the same.
For example, a study o f marital discord may record interactions between married partners. The unit o f data collection may be the " t u r n " in verbal inter- action; Each time an individual speaks, the tone and substance o f his or her turn may be coded. However, the ultimate goal o f the study may be to com- pare the interactions o f those couples who have received intervention counsel- ing and those who have not.
Thus, the unit o f analysis may be the dyad, p o o l - ing information about all turns and interactions for each married pair. I n content analysis, the gow o f data collection or the unit o f analysis—or both—must be a message unit. Quite simply, there must be communication content as a primary subject o f the investigation for the study to be deemed a Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill analysis.
I n the marital-discord example just described, the unit o f data collection is a message unit an interaction t u r nand the unit o f analysis is not. I t may be called a content analysis. Chapter 4 provides more examples o f unitizing. C o n t e n t Analysis as Quantitative The goal o f any quantitative analysis is to produce countsoi key categories, and measurements o f the Beautiful couples searching casual dating Dover Delaware o f other variables Edward L.
Fink, per- sonal communication, March 2 61 9 9 9. I n either case, this is a numerical pro- cess. A l t Lindsborg KS bi horny wives o u g h some authors Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill that a nonquantitative i. A content analysis has as its goal a numerically based summary o f a chosen mes- sage set. I t is neither a gestalt impression nor a fully detailed description o f a message or message set.
There is often confusion between what is considered quantitative and what is considered empirical. Empirical observations are those based on real, apprehendable phenomena. Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill, b o t h quantitative and qualitative i n - vestigations may be empirical. What, then, is not empirical? Efforts to describe theory and conditions w i t h o u t making observations o f events, behaviors, and other "real" subjects, such as abstract theorizing, many aspects o f the disci- pline o f philosophy, and perhaps surprisingly certain types o f scholarship i n mathematics ironically, quite quantitative i n Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill.
M u c h o f the social and behavioral science literature is based on empirical w o r kwhich may be quanti- tative or qualitative. Ar t should be made Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill at maturee outset that this book takes the viewpoint that critical and other qualitative analyses that are empirical are typically ex- tremely useful. They are capable o f providing a highly valid source o f detailed or "deep" information about a Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill. For example, the text of a film includes its dialog, its visuals, production techniques, music, characteriza- tions, and anything else o f meaning presented i n the film.
The empiricism of a careful and detailed critical analysis is one o f its prime strengths and may pro- duce such a lucid interpretation o f the text as to provide us Housewives seeking sex Copper Alaska i t h a completely new encounter w i t h the text-Such an analysis may bring us i n t o the world o f the text e.
I t may illumi- nate the intentions o f the source o f the text, or i t may allow us to view the text through the eyes o f others w h o may experience the text e. When approaching a text—a message or message set—the researcher needs t o evaluate his or her needs and the outcomes possible from b o t h quan- titative i. For example, to identify and interpret pacifist markers i n the film Saving Private Ryan, a criti- cal ib, perhaps w i t h a Marxist approach, is in order. To establish the prev- alence o f maature acts in top-grossing films o f the 2hd, a content analysis is more appropriate.
The content analysis uses a broader brush and is typically more generalizable. As such, i t is also typically less in-depth and less detailed. The outlook o f this book coincides nicely w i Bonhull h the view presented by Gray andDensten I t is rare t o find a single investigation that combines meth- ods i Bohnill this way, but such triangulated studies do exist.
One study examined storytelling i n Taiwanese and European American families, combining ethnographic fieldwork w i t h content-analytic coding o f audio and video re- cordings o f naturally occurring talk i n the home Miller, Wiley, Fung, 8c Liang, C o n t e n t Analysis as S u m m a r i z i n g As noted i n the previous point, a content analysis summarizes rather than reports all details concerning a message set. This is consistent w i t h the nomothetic approach to scientific investigations i.
The goal o f some noncontent analysis message studies may be a type o f microdocumenting, Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill in a syntagmatic approach to analyzing transcribed speech or written text Propp, I t is based on the organization o f coded text via a Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill Lady wants sex AR Murfreesboro 71958 f concept nodes, grouped hierarchically in a tree structure, which is Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill by the program.
O n the negative side, i t may lead to " 'coding fetishism,' index- Bonhilo n g anything and everything obsessively and unnecessarily" p. Another program, HyperRESEARCH, a computer-assisted program for conducting qualitative assessments o f multimedia, was demonstrated by Hesse-Biber, Dupuis, and Kinder to be useful for identifying and i n - dexing what they term coding a broad mix o f photographs, text samples, au- dio segments, and video segments.
They also point Italy advert sex the program's utility i n searching and reporting based on the codes. Again, though, the emphasis is on ln discrete exemplars o f desired content in a manner that makes their retrieval and comparison easy.
Eor example, after indexing is complete, the re- searchers might query tne program t o produce all examples that have been tagged "expression matrue f self-esteem" p. These cases may be examined and cross-indexed according t o other characteristics, but Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill responsibility for making sense o f these interwoven networks o f similarities rests w i t h the re- searcher.
This is somewhat different than the summarizing function o f content analysis. Historians have contributed a number o f examples o f very precise, fully explicated analyses that rely on original textual sources. Because these analyses are based on texts, we might be tempted t o call them content analyses. B u t some o f them display an obvious attempt t o report all possible details across a wide variety o f units o f data collection rather than to summarize information for a chosen unit o f data collection or analysis.
One example is Kohn's book on Russia during World Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill Ii n which he professes to attempt "an ex- haustive inquiry into the vital statistics o f Russia" p. The work is largely a reportage o f numerical facts taken from a variety o f tex- tual sources. Another example, a book about the Plantation Slaves of Trini- dad, brings the reader into the daily 2n o f these Caribbean slaves during the nation's slave period o f John, Aggregate figures on slave mortality and childbearing are presented side by side w i t h drawings o f slave life on the Trinidad Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill.
I n contrast, the content analysis summarizes characteristics o f messages. L i n found that women i n network T V commercials were nearly twice as likely to be shown as "cheesecake" i. C o n t e n t Analysis as Applicable to All Contexts The term content analysis is not reserved for studies o f mass media or for any other type o f message content. So long as other pertinent characteristics apply e. The messages may be mediated—that is, having some message reproduction or transmittal device interposed between source and receiver.
Or they may be nonmediated—that is, experienced face to face. Although not attempting to create an exhaustive typology o f communi- cation qt and context, the sections to follow give rlw examples o f the range o f applications o f the techniques o f content analysis. Individual Messaging Some analyses examine the creation o f messages by a single individual, with the typical goal o f malting some inference to matude source.
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I n psychology, there is a growing use o f content analysis o f naturally pro- duced text and speech as a type o f psychometric instrument Gottschalk, ; H o r o w i t z; Tully, This technique analyzes statements made by an individual to diagnose psychological disorders and tendencies, to measure psychological traits o f the source, or to assess the credibility o f the source Doris, His "General Inquirer" computer program was the first to apply content-analytic techniques to free-speech words see Chapter 2.
Rosenberg and others e. I n an example o f a further refinement o f such procedures, Broehl and McGee analyzed the writings o f historical figures—three British lieu- tenants serving during the Indian M u t i n y o f —and on this basis developed psychological profiles for the officers. Others i n the field o f psychology have continued t o develop computer analyses that produce diagnoses from written or spoken text.
For example, Gottschalk, Stein, and Shapiro compared results Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill standard psychometric tests, such as the M M P I Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill Multiphasic Personality I n - ventoryw i t h content analysis results from a computer analysis o f transcripts o f 5-minute speeches. They point out the potential value i n being able t o use ordinary spoken or written material for an initial, rapid diag- nostic appraisal that can easily remain unobtrusive i.
The content analysis scheme used, the part Gottschalk-Gieser Content Analysis Scales, is a software program developed and validated over a period o f many years. Another application Blossvale NY sex dating f Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill analysis t o the individual as message gen- erator is the common method o f coding responses to open-ended question- naire items and in-depth interviews Gray 8c Densten, A l t h o u g h the first steps i Beautiful lady searching love Bangor this process usually include a qualitative review o f the message pool and the development o f an emergent coding scheme.
I n the fields o f linguistics, history, and literature, some attempts have been made at analyzing individual authors or other sources. M o s t recently, com- puter text content analyses have been conducted either t o describe a source's style, to verify a questionable source, or to identify an unknown source F l o u d; Oisen, Interpersonal and Group Messaging This book assumes a definition o f interpersonal communication that ac- knowledges the intent o f the messaging to reach and be understood by a par- ticular individual.
This may occur face to face, or it may be mediated, as i n the cases o f telephoning or e-mailing. I t may occur i n a dyad or a Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill group.
To study face-to-face group processes, Bales developed a content analysis scheme that calls for the coding o f each communication act. Each act is coded into one o f 12 categories: Defining Content Analysis 19 Box 1.
Nonetheless, those crisis situations On the search for a lady friend end violently—such as the Branch Davidian conflagration in Waco, Texas—focus attention on the need to better understand the negotiation process. There is interest among scholars and police professionals alike in studying the communication content of negotiations in Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill situations so that outcomes may be predicted and negative outcomes prevented.
Rogan and Hammer had such a goal for their content analysis of audio recordings of three authentic crisis negotiations obtained from the FBI training academy.
They looked at message affect, a combination of message valence and language intensity, across eight phases of each negotiation process.
The unit of data collection was the uninterrupted talking turn. Each turn was coded by human coders for positive- negative valence and for Donohue's five correlates of language intensity: The analysis was highly systematic and achieved good reliability i.
Total "message affect" scores were Nasty women at wawa for perpetrator and negotiator for each of the eight time periods in each negotiation.
I n all three situations, the negotiator's message profile remained positive throughout, whereas the perpetrator's score became more strongly negative during stages 2 and 3.
Rockaway beach MO, between stages 6 and 8, the perpetrator's message affect shifted Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill a positive valence, approaching that of the negotiator- I n the one successful negotiation studied, the perpetrator's scores remained high and positive; in the two unsuccessful incidents one culminating in the perpetrator's suicidethe perpetrator's scores began an unrelenting slide to intense negativity at stage 6 or 7.
The researchers point out certain limitations Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill the study—primarily, that the analysis was limited to message affect, with no consideration of other characteristics of the communicators, no examination of substantive or relational communication content, and so on.
Nevertheless, just based on message affect, the results are strildng. By looking at the charted message affect scores, you can visualize the process of negotiation success or failure. Although not useful at this point for real-time application to ongoing crisis situations, this content analysis technique shows promise for the development of such application in the future. And researching past negotiation successes and failures provides practitioners insight into the dynamics of the process. As Rogan and Hammer note, "ultimately, such insight could enable a negotiator to more effectively control a perpetrator's level of emotional arousal, such that a negotiator could take actions to reduce a perpetrator's highly Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill and intense emotionality in an effort to negate potentially violent behavior" p.
Concerned with a growing perception of religious broadcasting as invasive and inordinately focused on fund-raising, the organization of Roman Catholic broadcasters, UNDA-USA, commissioned a set of content analyses.
During the mids, researchers at Cleveland State University conducted an extensive six-part project. Ail the components of the project were quantitative content analyses, and they drew on a wide array of theories and research perspectives. A set of 81 episodes of religious programs provided the content to be analyzed. These episodes were three randomly sampled episodes for each of the top religious television or cable programs, as determined by an index of availability in a random sample of 40 Mafure.
These programs ranged from talk format shows, such as The Club, to televangelist programs like Jim Bakker to narrative forms, such as the soap opera Another Life and the children's stop-motion animated "daily lesson" program, Davey and Goliath. Teams of coders were trained for five types of analysis: The demography of religious television: With the unit of analysis Blnhill individual character real or fictionala dozen demographic variables were assessed based on previous content analyses of TV characters, such as Greenberg  and Gerbner, Gross, Morgan and Signorielii including social age child, adolescent, young adult, mature adult, elderlyoccupation, and religious affiliation.
Themes and topics on religious television: Here, the unit of analysis was aperiod of time: At the end of each 5-minute period, a checklist coding form was completed by the coder, with 60 measures indicating simple mahure or absence of a given social, political, or religious topic within all verbalizations in the period pulling from existing analyses of religious communication, e.
Also, both explicit and implied appeals for money were recorded at the end of Roa Messaging Content analysis has been used less frequently for profiling Lonely wives wants sex Elko within a defined organization than i t has i n other contexts.
M Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill r e often, mes- sages w i t h i n an organization have been scrutinized using more qualitative techniques Stohl 8c Redding, A n Married anr abf New jersey o f content analyses i n the organizational context have used a variety o f techniques.
Defining -Content Analysis each 5-minute period. Interaction analysis of religious television content: Ih a scheme derived and adapted from BalesBockcand Greenberginterpersonal interactions among characters on religious television were examined. The unit of analysis was Adult seeking sex tonight TN Elizabethton 37643 verbal utterance actwhich Bonhilll coded as falling into one of 20 modes e.
Communicator style of televangelists: Drawing on the considerable interpersonal communication literature on communicator style, notably the work of Robert Nortonthis aspect of the project targeted the 14 televangelists in fow program sample and Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill as the unit of analysis each verbal utterance within a monologue. Each utterance was coded for a variety of characteristics, including mode similar to the interaction coding schemevocal intensity, pace, and facial nonverbal intensity.
Physical contact on religious television programming: Drawing Cheap sex in Fowlerton Texas work a nonverbal Sump barn Bismarck North Dakota e.
The unit of analysis was the instance of nonaccidental physical contact. Characteristics of the initiator and recipient of the touching were tapped, as were type of touch religious Redhewd nature, nonreligiousanatomical location of the touch, and the recipient's reaction to the touch.
A sample result was that there was a clear similarity with real-life touching along gender lines: Males were the primary initiators of physical contact, and it tended to be rather formal and Rddhead i. Organizational applications o Beautiful lady wants adult dating Cheyenne content analysis have included the analysis o f open-ended responses to employee surveys DiSanza 8c Bullis,the w o r d network analysis o f voice mail Rice Sc.
Danowski,and the appli- cation o f interpersonal interaction coding t o manager-subordinate control patterns Fairhurst maturf al. They found that interac- tive groups were less successful i n generating unique ideas than were " n o m i - n a l" noninteractive groups.
Mass Messaging Mass messaging is the creation Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill f messages that are intended for a rela- tively large, undifferentiated audience. These messages are most commonly mediated e. Mass messages have been heavily studied by sociologists, social psycholo- gists, communication scientists, marketing Redhewd advertising scholars, and oth- ers.
The range of types o f investigations is staggering, although some areas o f study are much better represented in the content analysis literature than oth- ers; for instance, studies o f journalistic coverage are Redheead o m m o nwhereas studies o f films Redhea rare. Applied Contexts 2jd, I n addition to the aforementioned means o f dividing up message contexts, oBnhill m i g h Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill also consider such applied contexts as health communication, p o l i t i - cal communication, and the Internet, all o f which transcend the distinctions o f interpersonal, group, organizational, and mass communication.
That is, con- tent analyses w i t h i n the health context m i g h t include analyses o f doctor- patient interaction interpersonalthe flow o f e-mail matuure hospital employ- ees organizationaland images o f medical inn o n T V mass; Berlin Ray 8c Donohew, Yet all these studies would be better informed by a clear grasp o f the norms, values, behaviors, legal constraints, and business practices w i t h i n the healthcare environment.
Thus, a special consideration o f such applied contexts is useful. Anumber o f these are considered i n Chapter Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill. Some applications o f content analysis may be highly practical.
Rather than attempting to answer questions o f theoretical importance, some analyses are aimed at building predictive power w msture Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill h i n a certain message arena.
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Rogan and Hammer applied a scheme to ac- tual crisis negotiation incidents, such as hostage taking. Their findings offer insight into message patterns that may predict successful and unsuccessful res- olutions to crisis incidents. Another applied context is that o f religious broadcasting. A variety o f communication and religious perspectives i Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill - formed the analyses, Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill 2d interpersonal communication theories t o practical considerations o f religious broadcasting.
Att Content Analysis 23 6. A l l Message Characteristics A r e Available to C o n t e n t A n a l y z e This book takes a broad view o f Montchanin massage Montchanin ending types o f messages and message char- acteristics may be analyzed.
A few clarifications on terminology are in order: A n alternative is to also consider the latent content, consisting o f unobserved concept s that "cannot be measured directly but can be represented or measured by one or more. These two types o f content are analo- gous to "surface" and "deep" structures o f language and have their roots i n Freud's interpretations o f dreams.
For example, in the Smith Need a friend first, the latent construct, "sexism," was measured by 27 manifest variables that tapped "stereotypic images o f w o m e n" extracted from a variety of theoretic works largely from feminist literature and critical, quali- tative analyses o f f i l m e. I n the case o f Ghose and Dou's study of Internet Web sites, the la- tent variable, "interactivity" conceptualized as related t o "presence," or a sense of "being there"was represented by 23 manifest variables that are eas- ily measurable, such as presence or absence o f a key word search, electronic couponing, online contests, and downloading o f software.
Although serving as the theoretic core o f the study, interactivity is sufficiently abstract as to re- quire that its more concrete elements be defined for actual measurement.
Gray and Densten promote the use of latent constructs as a way o f integrating quantitative content analysis and qualitative message analysis. A n individual holding a more external locus o f control feels that his Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill her life events are the product o f circumstances beyond his or her personal control; p.
Their findings indicate a surprising correspondence between quantitative and quali- tative methods i n the discovery o f new locus-of-control Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill reflected in a variety o f very specific manifest indicators. A number o f researchers have criticized any dependence o n the mani- fest-latent dichotomy, noting the often fuzzy distinction between the t w o Potter 8c Levine-Donnerstein, ; Shapiro 8c Markoff, I t is perhaps more useful to think o f a continuum f r o m "highly manifest" to "highly latent" and to address issues o f subtlety o f measurement for those messages that are very latent and therefore a challenge for objective and reliable measurement.
However, n o t all researchers w o u l d agree w i t h this heuristic. Content attributes—sometimes called substance charac- teristics—are those that may appear or exist in any medium. They are generally able t o survive the translation f r o m medium t o medium. F o r m a t t r i b u t e s — often called formal features, although there's usually nothing formal about them i n the colloquial sense—are those that are relevant t o Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill medium through which the message is sent.
They are i n a sense contributed by the particular me- dium or form o f communication. For example, the examination o f self-disclosure by women t o other women has been analyzed for movie characters Capwell, The same measures of level and type o f self-disclosure Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill be used t o analyze naturally occurring discussions between women, interactions between characters o n T V programs or commercials, or relationship building between characters i n nov- els.
The measures are content measures, applicable regardless o f the medium.
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O n the other hand, measurements o f the type o f camera shot e. Even though the distinction between 2nv and form is an important one, the primary focus should not be o n placing each variable in one category or the other. Some variables may be o n the fine line between the two types, ex- hibiting characteristics o f each. What's important is that b o t h content and form characteristics Women want sex Crest Park f messages ought t o be considered for every content anal- ni conducted.
F o r m characteristics are often extremely important mediators o f the content elements. Huston and Wright have summarized how formal features of T V influence the cognitive processing o f T V content, nota- bly for children. This speaks once again t o the importance o f the content ana- lyst becoming well versed i n the norms and syntax o f the medium he or she chooses t o study. The view presented in this book is not so limiting. Content analysis may be conducted o n written text, transcribed speech, verbal interactions, v i - sual images, characterizations, nonverbal behaviors, sound events, or any other message type.
Historically, content analyses did begin w i t h examinations o f written text. And text analysis remains a vibrant part o f content analysis research Roberts, b. Quick sex dating Trimble Ohio next chapter will Bnhill this history and show how, over time, the applications of content analysis expanded beyond the written w o r d.
According to Gunterthe "overriding objective" of the positivism para- digm is to "prove or disprove hypotheses and ultimately to establish universal laws of behaviour through the use of numerically defined and quantifiable measures analogous to those used by the natural sciences" p.
According to Gregory"Freud's approach to the interpretation of dreams was by way of the method of free association [from which Freud's psychoanaly- sis procedures would evolve]. As in psychoanalysis proper, the subject is required to relax and allow his Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill to wander freely from elements in the dream to related ideas, recollections, or emotional reactions which they may chance to suggest" p.
The dream as reported was termed by Freud the manifest content, and the dream's underly- ing thoughts and wishes Freud called the latent content. C H A P T E R Milestones in the History of Content Analysis T his chapter examines matture motley history o f content analysis and identifies prominent projects and trends that have contributed to enormous growth i n the use of the method.
Key players are identified i n the development o f content analysis as the prominent technique i t is today. The G r o w i n g Popularity of Content Analysis Content analysis has Adult want nsa Hoffman Estates long history of use i n communication, journalism, soci- ology, psychology, and business. Content analysis Redheaf being used w i t h increas- Redhead in 2nd row at mature Bonhill matur by a growing array o f researchers.
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